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Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity  

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Table of Contents 

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information  

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction  

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan   

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity   

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an  

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth  

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise

 

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?   

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective   

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an   

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure 

 

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith

 

2. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

3. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty

 

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims

 

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Last Day, Qadha and Qadar 

 

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran   

 

2. Angels

 

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran    

 

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran 

 

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran   

 

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran  

 

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

9. The Last Day: The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

 

10. .God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do 

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The La (No) Commands 

 

3. The Imperative Commands   

 

***

 

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective  

 

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture  

 

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

 

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings  

 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with  

 

Da'awa, Call to Islam 

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

 

Links to Islamic topics 2006

 

Links to Islamic topics 2005

 

Links to Islamic topics 2004

 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002

 

 

Islam:

 

A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

 

7

  

Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

First published  on 25th of Rajab, 1431 - 7th of July, 2010

 

Being Revised during Shawwal, 1439 - July 2018

 

 

 

 

 

***

 

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

 

 

Introduction

 

 

There are many translations of the Holy Quran from Arabic to various languages. In one website alone (www.tanzil.info), there were seventeen English translations, by July 2018, in addition to translations to other languages. However, most of them lack accuracy when it comes to the topic of this Chapter.

 

One example is the translation of the root verb 'abada (to worship) and its various derivatives. The verb is clear in its meaning, so are its derivatives, such as 'ibad (worshippers).

 

Most translators translated the singular adjective 'abd ( ), "worshipper," into "slave," "bondman," or "servant," which is incorrect, as argued throughout this Chapter. Only two of the seventeen translators translated it correctly as "worshipper" and "votary."

 

Eight other translators understood the word, 'ibadatihi correctly as "His worship," in Verse 4: 172, which is the Quran guidance in explaining the adjective 'abd as "worshipper."  However, they failed to apply it to this adjective after that (See End Note [1] and Table 1 for more detailed statistics).

 

The same observation applies to the plural form of the same adjective, 'ibad  ( ), which should be translated as "worshippers," according to Verse 4: 172, as also argued throughout this Chapter. However, it was translated in nine different translations, mainly as "servants" as well as "bondmen" and "slaves." Some translators also used the words "creatures, votaries, devotees, men, and human beings" in their translations. Only one of the seventeen translators, Qaribullah, translated it correctly, as "worshipers" (See End Note [1] and Table 2 for more detailed statistics and observations).

 

These inaccurate translations may mislead readers, particularly those who do not know Arabic, to think that  the Holy Quran refers to Muslims and believers as "slaves," which is not true. This inaccuracy in translation may also mislead people, who read translations of the Holy Quran, to adopt the wrong and extreme views of Al-Qadariya and Al-Jabriya. These two defunct groups appeared around the end of the first Hijri Century, more than 1,300 years ago. They argued that humans are "forced slaves," and consequently should not be held responsible for their actions.

 

This Chapter attempts to clarify the issue, educating Muslims and non-Muslims about it, through discussing the meanings of the Holy Quran related verses. It starts with a comparison between the words 'ibad (worshippers) and 'abeed (slaves or bondmen), then there is a general discussion about the topic of "Choice and Predestination, as the larger context for answering the question of whether believers are worshippers by choice or they are forced slaves.

 

In part, this Chapter is a continuation of the discussion of the Caliphate and Choice, which started in Chapter 5, " Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth." It is also lightly addressing the deep question of whether Allah, praise to Him, has willed that we are His worshippers by choice or we are forced slaves who carry out His predestined will. In the discussion of this issue, this author is using the middle-ground approach, Al-Wasatiya, following Verse 2: 143 of the Holy Quran.  

 

ٰ  ۗ   ( 2: 143).

 

And thus we have made you (Muslims) a middle-ground (balanced) community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you (Al-Baqara, 2: 143).

 

In interpreting this verse (2: 143), early Muslim scholars, particularly Al-Tabari and Al-Qurtubi, mentioned that Allah, praise to Him, has taught the believers to be in a balanced and just middle-ground position, unlike followers of other religions before them, who went to the extreme on both ends. While followers of Moussa (Moses), peace be upon him, gave him a hard time in accepting his teachings, followers of 'Eissa (Jesus), peace be upon him, went to the other extreme of glorifying him to the extent of worshipping him beside God, or even instead of Him.

 

So, the Islamic position towards the question of choice or predestination is a balanced (middle-ground) one. While we have a choice on matters that are within our reach, there are things beyond our capabilities that we have no choice about. Consequently, we are held responsible for our decisions about matters that we can influence or control.

 

 

Worshippers ('ibad ) Or Slaves ('abeed )?  

 

There are about 243 verses of the Holy Quran, which mention the root verb of worship ('abada) and its derivatives. In about 96 of these verses, people are referred to as "worshippers" ('ibad), or other forms of the adjective.

There are twenty verses mentioning the word "the worshippers" (al-'ibad), four verses mentioning the word "worshippers" ('ibad) as a subject, two verses mentioning the word "worshippers" as a predicate ('ibadan), seven verses mentioning the word "your worshippers" ('ibadak), twelve verses mentioning the word "Our worshippers" ('ibadana), 34 verses mentioning the word "His worshippers" ('ibadahu), and 17 verses mentioning the word "My worshippers" ('ibadi).  

The word 'ibad (worshippers) is an Arabic plural adjective, which is not disputed to mean and be associated with the act of worship. It refers to humans, who choose to worship their Creator, Who installed in them the ability to choose, by creation. This also applies to the singular adjective of this word, 'abid, which refers to the individual who worships his/her Creator, by choice too. However, the other singular adjective of this word, 'abd, was confused by some people because it is also the singular adjective of another plural adjective, 'abeed (slaves).

The word 'abd was mentioned twice, in the Holy Quran, as a singular form to the plural adjective 'abeed (slaves). In one verse only, 16: 75, it was used with the qualifying adjective /mamlook/, to mean an "owned slave." However, whenever the word /'abd/ was mentioned in the Holy Quran, describing a person in his/her first life on Earth, it meant a worshipper of Allah. However, on the Last Day, people are resurrected as helpless and powerless, which means that they will be "slaves" to the Owner of the Day of Judgment, as mentioned in verse 19: 93.

 

ٰ ( 16: 75).

 

Allah gives an example (of) an owned slave (who is) unable to do (any) thing (Al-Na'hl, 16: 75). 

 

ٰ ( 19: 93).

 

There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Merciful as a slave (Maryam, 19: 93).


The clear meaning is that people, as a general rule, are not slaves. Rather, they are worshippers, if they choose to worship their Creator, whether they are referred to by singular or by plural forms of the adjective. The evidence is that "worshippers" are honored for their free will and their ability to choose, while "slaves" are deprived of this ability and that honor. Therefore, the honored angels, Messengers of God, Prophets, and believers are all referred to individually with the adjective 'abd or its various forms, to mean an honored "worshipper," as mentioned in the 23 verses of the Holy Quran, in which the singular adjective is used. [2]

The Decisive Evidence

 

Verse 4: 172, is decisive in explaining the word " 'abd, " in 'abdullah, which means "Worshipper" of Allah, NOT "slave" of Allah, as the verse explains his actions as 'ibadah  ( )  "worship." It should be enough in answering the question, about whether we are God's worshippers or slaves, once and forever. Accordingly, believers are worshippers of Allah, by their own choice, they are not slaves who are forced to do so. Moreover, this verse tells us that the angels, including those among them who are closest to Allah, are also His honored worshippers, who do not disdain to His worship, as He described them in verse 21: 26.

 

( 4: 172).  

 

The Messiah does not disdain to be a worshipper of Allah, nor do the closest angels (to Allah). Whoever disdains His worship and is too arrogant (to worship Allah), He will gather all of them to Him  (Al-Nissa, 4: 172).

 

ٰ ۗ ۚ ( 21: 26).

 

And they say, "The Beneficent has taken a son." Exalted is He! Rather, they (the angels) are honored worshippers (Al-Anbiya, 21: 26).



The five verses which describe the wrong-doers and self-oppressors as
slaves ( 'abeed ):

There are only five verses in the Holy Quran, which refer to people as "slaves" ('abeed), in plural form, all of which in reference to people who "oppress" themselves by rejecting God's messages to humanity. Thus, these are the ones who are enslaved by their desires, arrogance, and stubbornness in rejecting faith in their Creator. [3]

The first verse which described self-oppressors as "slaves" ('abeed) was 3: 182, describing a category of people, represented by a
Jewish rabbi called Fin'has, who made fun of God, saying that He, praise to Him, is poor, who needs loans from the wealthy. The second verse was 8: 50, referring to the disbelievers who fought Muslims in the Battle of Badr. The third verse was 22: 10, about one of the leaders of non-believers, Al-Nadhr Bin Al-Harith. The fourth verse was 41: 46, referring to Children of Israel, who gave Moussa (Moses), peace and blessings be upon him, a hard time. The fifth verse was 50: 29, which was a reference to the misguided in this life who follow their desires away from the path of Allah and try to blame it on the devil.

Thus, when people are mentioned as "slaves" ('abeed) in the Holy Quran, it is a reference to non-believers, who reject the path of Allah, as well as to the disobedient ones. They are slaves to their arrogance, ignorance, pride, stubbornness, and misguidance.
However, believers are only mentioned as "worshippers" of God ('ibad), not "slaves" ('abeed).

Here are the five verses which describe the wrong-doers and self-oppressors as slaves ('abeed):

First, a description of and a reply to the arrogant miserly ones:


 ۘ ﴿١٨١

 

ٰ ﴿١٨٢﴾  ( 3: 182 ).

 

Allah has heard the saying of those who said: "Allah is poor and we are rich!"  We shall write (record) what they said and (We shall write) their killing of the prophets unjustly, and We say (to them): "Taste the torment of the burning (Fire) (Al-'Imran, 3: 181).

 

This is because of what your hands committed before, and Allah is not unjust to the slaves (Al-'Imran, 3: 182)

 

The word "slaves" in Verse 3: 182 refers to a category of people who were mentioned in the preceding Verse (3: 181), which addresses a falsehood by a Jewish rabbi called Fin'has, who claimed that God is poor and the Jews are rich, and that He, praise to Him, needs their money when He asks the rich to spend on the poor, while they as rich don't need Him.

 

The three early renowned Islamic scholars (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer) mentioned that Verse 3: 182 is God's reply to Fin'has, promising to punish him, and those like him, in the hereafter for the money their hands earned but did not spend on the poor. Ibn Katheer added that they were described as slaves as an expression of disdain and humiliation for them. [4]

 

Second, a description of the non-believers who fought against Muslims in Badr:

 

 

ٰ  ۙ ﴿٥٠﴾ ٰ ﴿٥١  ( 8: 51).

 

If you could see how the angels complete records (take souls) of those who disbelieve, striking their faces and their backs and (saying to them): Taste the torment of the burning (Fire) (Al-Anfal, 8: 50).

This is because of what your hands committed before, and Allah is not unjust to the slaves  (Al-Anfal, 8: 51).

 

The word "slaves" in Verse 8: 51 refers to a category of people who were mentioned in the preceding  Verse (8: 50), which addresses the disbelievers who fought against Muslims in the Battle of Badr but it also addresses the disbelievers in general, as related by Ibn Katheer and Al-Tabari. However, Al-Qurtubi did not mention the disbelievers of Badr in particular, saying it is about the disbelievers generally.

 

Third, a description of those who insist on rejecting faith, without knowledge or a book, just out of stubbornness and arrogance:

 

 

﴿٨﴾  ۖ  ۖ ﴿٩﴾ ٰ ﴿١٠  ( 22: 10).

 

 

There is among people someone who argues about Allah, without Knowledge, without Guidance, and without a Book of Enlightenment (Al-Haj, 22: 8).

 

(Arrogantly) bending his neck (away from the truth), in order to lead (people) away from the Path of Allah. For him, there is disgrace in this life, and on the Day of Resurrection We shall make him taste the torment of the burning (Fire) (Al-Haj, 22: 9).

 

(And We say to him): This is for what your hands committed before, and Allah is not unjust to the slaves (Al-Haj, 22: 10).

 

The three early Islamic scholars related that the first ten verses of Surat Al-'Haj (Chapter 22) applied to one of the leaders of the non-believers, Al-Nadhr Bin Al-Harith, who argued about issues he was ignorant about, without any support from a book or guidance. He denied the Day of Resurrection, the Mission of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), and the Holy Quran as the word of God. He also claimed that the angels are God's daughters (53: 21). 

 

Moreover, whenever he was invited to the truth, he would arrogantly bend his neck away, so he did not want to hear it. He would insist on trying to lead people away from the path of Allah, and that is why he would be punished in the Hell Fire, in the Day of Judgment. 

 

Thus, the word "slaves" in Verse 22: 10 is used to describe Al-Nadhr Bin Al-Harith and people like him, as a derogatory expression of disdain and humiliation to them, as disbelievers, who are slaves of their arrogance and ignorance.

 

Fourth, a description of those who insisted on disputing the authenticity of the Torah, without knowledge about what they were disputing:

 

 ۗ  ۚ ﴿٤٥

 

 ۖ  ۗ ﴿٤٦  ( 41: 46). 

 

And We gave Moussa (Moses) the Book but it was differed about. If a Word from your Lord had not preceded it, the matter would have been judged between them. They are still suspiciously in doubt about it (Fussilat, 41: 45).

Whoever does a righteous deed, it is (counted) for his soul (self); and whoever does an unrighteous deed, it is (counted) against it; and your Lord is not unjust to the slaves (Fussilat, 41: 46).

 

The word "slaves" in Verse 41: 46 describes those who disputed what was revealed to Moussa (Moses), peace and blessings of God be upon him, without being sure of what they disputed. They deserve this derogatory description, "slaves," for their disbelief and rejection for the Book revealed to the Messenger of God, as they were slaves to their arrogance and stubbornness. Their punishment was delayed to the hereafter as a result of a precedent Word from God. Otherwise they would have been punished for that during their first life on Earth.

 

Fifth, a description of the misguided ones, who blame the devils for their misguidance:

 

ٰ ﴿٢٧﴾ ﴿٢٨﴾ ﴿٢٩  ( 50: 29).

 

His (devil) companion will say (in the Day of Judgment: "Our Lord, I did not make him transgress, but he was in far astray (Qaf, 50: 27).

 

(Allah) will say: "Do not dispute before Me (because) I had already presented you the warning (Qaf, 50: 28).

 

The word (what you said) does not change with Me, and I am not unjust to the slaves (Qaf, 50: 29).

 

The word "slaves" in Verse 50: 29 describes those who are misguided, following their desires away from the path of God, and who are also encouraged to transgress against themselves by listening to their devil companions. When, on the Day of Judgment, they accuse the devils of being responsible for their misguidance in this life, the devils will dispute it saying that they were already far away from the path of Allah. Then, both of them will be punished in the Hell Fire by Allah, who is never unjust to those who are "slaves" to their desires and misguidance.

 

 

Choice or Predestination?

 

A fundamental question that many people have asked is whether we are predestined to do what we have been doing or we have the freedom to choose? The unequivocal answer from the mainstream Islamic perspective is that we are free to choose and that we are held responsible for our choices on matters that we can choose from. At the same time, in matters which are beyond their control, Muslims accept that God has foreknowledge and can intervene, if He wills, to help those who ask for His assistance. They also believe in "God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha," as explained in Chapter 25.

 

Throughout the Holy Quran, Allah, praise to Him, says that life on earth is a test for human beings. They will be rewarded by living an everlasting life in Paradise if they pass it, or they will be punished in the Hell Fire if they fail it. This means that human beings have a choice to do right or wrong. If they have no choice, then they may not be held accountable for their actions by God, the Just, the Merciful, and the Compassionate.

 

 

Evidence for Choice in the Holy Quran

 

The evidence from the Holy Quran about choice is tremendous, as documented in the following verses:

 

First, throughout the Holy Quran, Allah, praise to Him, commands and invites people to work and take initiatives in the pursuit of their benefits, which is an encouragement for them to make choices. He also invites them to call on Him, to help them change their life for better. He has promised to answer their sincere calls. So, there is a choice for people to call on Him or not, then there is a willingness and a promise on His own side to help them change their life for better. This meaning is mentioned in many verses, such as 9: 105, 16: 97, 40: 60; 7: 55, 2: 186, 27: 62, 47: 19, 14: 41.

 

  ( 9: 105).

 

ٰ  ۖ   ( 16: 97).

 

  ( 40: 60).

 

  ( 7: 55).

 

   ۖ   ( 2: 186). 

 

  ( 27: 62).

 

  ( 47: 19). 

 

  ( 14: 41).

 

 

And say: "Work (do good deeds), for Allah will see your deeds, and (so, will) His Messenger and the believers (Al-Tawba, 9: 105).

 

Whoever among believers, whether a male or a female, does righteousness (good deeds), We will surely cause him/her to live a good life, and We will surely give them their reward (in the Hereafter), according to the best of what they used to do (Al-Na'hl, 16: 97).

 

And your Lord said: "Call upon Me; I will respond to you" (Ghafir, 40: 60). 

 

Call upon your Lord in humility and privately (Al-A'raf, 7: 55).

 

And when My worshippers ask you (O Muhammad) about Me, indeed I am close (to them). I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he/she calls upon Me (Al-Baqara, 2: 186).

 

Who else (other than Him) responds to the desperate one when he calls upon Him (Al-Naml, 27: 62).

 

And ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and believing women (Muhammed, 47: 19).

 

Our Lord, forgive me and my parents and the believers the Day the account (reckoning) is established (Ibrahim, 14: 41). 

 

*** 

 

Second, on the Day of Judgment, people will be judged by their deeds, even as small as a dust particle, good or bad, as mentioned in verses 99: 6-8. 

 

﴿٦﴾ ﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨  ( 99: 6-8).  

 

That Day, the people will depart separated [into categories] to be shown [the result of] their deeds. (6) So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it, (7) And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it. (8) (Al-Zalzala, 99: 6-8). 

 

***

 

Third, Gods trust in His human creation to be His caliphs, representing Him on Earth, was based on His knowledge of them as being capable to choose between right and wrong.

Thus, humans have the characteristic of choice between obedience and disobedience, making their own decisions, unlike angels, who are obedient to their Creator by creation, as stated in Verse 66: 6.

 

( 66: 6).

 

over (the Hellfire) are (appointed) angels, harsh and severe; they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do what they are commanded (Al-Tahreem, 66: 6).

 

Allah, praise to Him, wanted to enjoy seeing his human creation obey Him and observe His commands by choice. When He told His angels that He would make humans His caliphs on Earth, they were surprised because of their knowledge of human corruption and blood-shedding (violence). But Allah, praise to Him, answered them saying that He knew what they did not know, as stated in Verse 2:30.

 

 ۖ  ۖ   ( 2: 30).

 

And when your Lord said to the angels: I am making a caliph (successor) on the Earth. They said: Are You making therein one who corrupts it and sheds blood, while we hymn Your praise and sanctify You? He said: Surely I know that which you do not know  (Al-Baqara, 2: 30).  

 

He knew that as some humans may choose to corrupt and shed blood, others will choose to obey His commands and do good to themselves, to others, and to their Planet. Humans are born with the characteristic of being able to identify whats right and whats wrong. They are also born with the ability to choose which of the two paths they are going to follow. This freedom of choice is inherent, not learned. It is part of the original DNA software inscribed in them by their Creator, Who has praised those who keep the soul (self) pure and warn those who corrupt it, as stated in verses 76: 3, 90: 10, and 91: 7-10. 

 

( 76: 3). 

 

  ( 90: 10).

 

﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ﴿٩﴾ ﴿١٠﴾  ( 91: 7-10).

 

We guided him (the human being) to the path (of choice, to see if he chooses to be) either grateful or disbelieving (Al-Insan, 76: 3).

 

And have shown him the two ways? (Al-Balad, 90: 10). 

 

And by the (human) self (soul) and how He who fashioned it (7) And inspired it to (to know the paths of) disobedience and piety. (8) Truly, whoever keeps it pure will succeed, (9) And truly whoever corrupts it will fail (10) (Al-Shams, 91: 7-10). 

 

***

 

Fourth, the deeds people choose to do, during their first life on Earth, are written and recorded, to be the bases for judgment in the hereafter. On the Day of Judgment, people will be presented with two different numbered books, recording their deeds. These are Sijjeen for wrong doers, and 'lliyyeen for good doers, as mentioned in verses 83: 7-9 and 83: 18-20.  

 

﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ﴿٩﴾  ( 83: 7- 9).

 

﴿١٨﴾ ﴿١٩﴾ ﴿٢٠﴾  ( 83: 18- 20).   

 

No! Indeed, the book (record) of the wicked is in sijjeen. (7) And what do you think is sijjeen? (8) It is a numbered book (record) (9) (Al-Mutaffifeen, 83: 7-9).

 

No! Indeed, the book (record) of the righteous is in 'illiyyeen. (18) And what do you think is 'illiyyoon ('llyyeen)? (19) It is a numbered book (record) (20) (Al-Mutaffifeen, 83: 18-20).

 

***

 

Fifth, because the human self (soul) is equipped with the ability to differentiate between good and evil, life is a test for people about whether they will do good or bad, as stated in Verse 67: 2. Allah, praise to Him, sent His messengers to tell people to act on this ability and do good during their first life on Earth. Then, people will be rewarded for good deeds or punished for bad deeds in the hereafter, as stated in verses 17: 15 and 4: 165. 

 

  ( 67: 2).

 

  ( 17: 15).

 

 ( 4: 165).

 

He Who created Death and Life to test you, (seeing) who amongst you is best in deed, and He is the Exalted, the Forgiving (Al-Mulk, 67: 2).

 

We are not punishing (a group of people) until We send a Messenger (to warn them) (Al-Issra, 17: 15).

 

Messengers who gave good news as well as warning, in order for people not to have an argument on Allah after the Messengers, and Allah is Exalted, Wise (Al-Nissa, 4:165). 



Middle Ground in Choice and God's Will (Influence)


The relationship between human choice and God's will or influence has been a subject for discussion and research since the early years of Islam. The common view about this relationship is that humans have the freedom of choice on the matters they are capable to handle in this life, as Allah does not require from a person to do something beyond his/her ability (2: 286). However, there is an agreement that Allah has His own evaluation of things and His own will to act independently from what people can do. This includes His omniscient knowledge, which precedes the occurrence of events and their results (65: 12), and His intervention, if He wills, to help those who seek His support (2: 186, 40: 60), or to punish those who reject faith in Him and spread corruption on Earth (2: 205, 41: 13).

Because people do not know anything about God's evaluation of things and His intervention for or against them, then the best they can do is to follow His commands and avoid His prohibitions. When they do that, they pass His test, which enables them to enjoy happiness in this life, and an everlasting life in His Paradise, in the hereafter.

Thus, the middle-ground approach in discussing this topic agrees on the choice and responsibility towards things which humans can do. At the same time, it agrees on the acceptance of God's will and influence, as represented by His "Precise Measurement and His Just Decree (Al-Qadar Wal Qadha," as discussed in Chapter 25. [5]

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), addressed this issue, opting for choice and human initiative, which does not contradict with God's precise measurement and His just decree (Qadar and Qadha).

One of the Prophet's companions asked him once: O Messenger of Allah! We use incantations, medicine, and other means to treat sickness and avoid it. Do these things change God's will?


The Prophet's answer was: "These things are also God's will (Qadar)." [6]

In another 'Hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, the Prophet (pbbuh) urged believers to take initiatives and be strong in pursuing what benefits them in this life, while asking for God's assistance, which does not contradict with God's omniscient knowledge, His will and His intervention. He said:


"The strong believer is better and more beloved by Allah than the weak believer, with goodness in both. Be vigilant in pursuing what benefits you, ask for God's assistance, and do not be helpless (doing nothing). If something wrong happens to you, do not say I wish if I did this or that, then things could have been different. Instead, say that Allah has measured and did what He willed. Looking back and regretting what you did opens the door for the Shaytan (Satan)" (Recorded in the works of Muslim, Ibn Maja, and Ahmed). [7]

 

Further, the Companion Abu Ubayda Bin Al-Jarrah, asked Caliph Omar, may Allah be pleased with both of them, about the issue of predestination and the answer was the same as given by the Prophet, pbbuh. The Caliph intended to travel to Bilad Al-Sham (now Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordan) with a group of the Companions. After they had actually left the Capital of the Islamic State, Medina, they received news that there was an epidemic spreading there.


In response to that news, Omar decided to go back to Medina. When he announced his decision, Abu Ubayda asked him: "O Prince of Believers! Are you running away from God's predestination (Qadarullah)?" Then, Omar answered him promptly: "Yes, we run from God's predestination to God's predestination" (that is from God's will and decree to God's will and decree). [8]

Finally, the famous Sufi Abdul Qader Al-Jilani had a very succinct treatment of the issue, which was related by Ibn Taymiya and Ibn Al-Qayyem in a book titled "Fetou'h Al-Ghayb" (Openings of the Unseen), may Allah reward all of them. Al-Jilani said: "The real man does not surrender to the predestination. Rather, he struggles with the predestination by the predestination." [9]

By the end of the first Hijri century, some groups of scholars went astray from the Sunni majority. Al-Qadariya argued for a total human choice without God's foreknowledge, influence, or intervention, as humans are capable of everything, and they are totally independent from God. Therefore, humans control their own destiny (qadar).

Al-Jabriya went to the other extreme argued for a total Divine influence, without any choice for humans, as a human being is "forced" (mujbar) to carry out God's predestined script, without having any will of his/her own.

Arguments of these "self-Isolated" (Mu'tazila) groups contradict with the essence of the Islamic teachings, as expressed in the Holy Quran, 'Hadith, and Companion applications, all of which emphasize human choice and responsibility in this life, and consequently reward or punishment in the hereafter. That's why these arguments were rejected by the contemporary Companions and by Muslim scholars ever since, such as Ibn Taymiya, who refuted their errors and falsehoods. [10]


Verses About the Relationship Between Human Choice and God's Influence (Decree or Intervention)



There are many verses in the Holy Quran about the relationship between the human freedom of choice and God's influence (by decree or intervention). This relationship can be summarized in that those who show willingness to be good, do good, ask for God's guidance, and seek for His assistance, will be guided and assisted in this life, and rewarded by Him in the hereafter. However, those who show willingness to be bad, do wrong, believe that they are completely independent from God, and neither seek for His guidance nor for His assistance, will be misguided in this life and punished in the hereafter. 

This is demonstrated in verse 14: 27 about guidance to believers and misguidance to transgressors, verse 40: 34 about misguidance to transgressors and skeptics of God, verses 40: 74 about misguidance to disbelievers, verse 47: 1 about misguidance to disbelievers who avert people from the way of Allah, verse 47: 2 about guidance to believers who do good deeds, verse 11: 15 about initiatives in this lower life, verse 81: 28-29 about the human will and God's will, verses 92: 5-10 about giving charity and miserly behavior, verses 74: 55-56 about the human will to acknowledge and worship God and His will concerning that, verse 4: 78 about good or bad things which may happen to people, and verse 7: 28 about that

Allah does not command committing lewdness. To the contrary, He forbids it, as mentioned in verse 16: 90.

 

 ۖ  ۚ   ( 14:  27).


Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in the lower life and in the Hereafter. And Allah sends astray (misguides) the transgressors (wrongdoers). And Allah does what He wills (Ibrahim, 14: 27).

ٰ  ( 40:  34).

 

Thus, Allah sends astray (misguides) the one who is a transgressor and skeptic (about Him) (Ghafir, 40: 34).

 

ٰ ( 40:  74).

 

Thus, Allah sends astray (misguides) the disbelievers (Ghafir, 40: 74).

 

( 47: 1).

 

ٰ ۙ ( 47: 2).

 

Those who disbelieve and avert (people) from the way of Allah - He will misguide (waste) their deeds (Muhammed, 47: 1).

 

And those who believe and do righteous deeds and believe in what has been sent down upon Muhammad - and it is the truth from their Lord - He will remove from them their misdeeds and amend their condition (Muhammed, 47: 2).

 

 ( 11: 15). 

 

Whoever wants the lower life (this world) and its glitter, We shall allow them to complete their deeds in it, without diminution (Hood, 11: 15).

 

 (28)  ( 81: 28-29).

 

To whoever among you who wills to go straight (Al-Takweer, 81: 28).

 

And you do not will, except what Allah wills, the Lord of the Worlds (Al-Takweer, 81: 29).

 

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿٥ ٰ ﴿٦ ٰ ﴿٧ ٰ ﴿٨ ٰ ﴿٩ ٰ ﴿١٠﴾  ( 92: 5-10).

 

So, he who gives (in charity) and fears (Allah), (5) And (in all sincerity) testifies to the best,- (6) We will indeed make smooth for him the path to Bliss. (7) But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient, (8) And gives the lie to the best,- (9) We will indeed make smooth for him the path to Misery; (10) (Al-Layl, 92: 5-10).

 

﴿ 74: 55﴾.

 

   ۚ ٰ  ﴿ 74: 56﴾.

 

Whoever wills, may heed (in remembrance)" (Al-Muddathir, 74: 55).

But they will not heed except as Allah wills. He is the Lord of Piety and the Lord of Forgiveness"
 (Al-Muddathir, 74: 56).

 

 

 ( 4: 78).

 

If some a good (thing or condition) befalls them, they say: "This is from Allah" but if a bad (thing or condition) befalls them, they say: "This is from you" (O Prophet). Say (to them): "All (things are) from Allah." Why do these people barely understand a talk (an issue like this)? (Al-Nissa, 4: 78).

 

 ۗ  ۖ  ( 7: 28).

 

When they commit lewdness (a big sin), they say: "We found our fathers doing so" and "Allah commanded us to do it." Say: "Allah does not command committing lewdness. Do you say about Allah what you do not know? (Al-A'raf, 7: 28).

 

 

ٰ ٰ  ۚ   ( 16: 90).  

 

Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality (big sins) and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that you may remember (Al-Na'hl, 16: 90).

 

 

Allah, Almighty, has told the truth.

 

***

  

Conclusion

A direct answer to the question included in the title of this chapter is that humans are not slaves, who are forced to believe in their Creator, or disbelieve in Him. To the contrary, they are equipped with the ability to choose between belief and disbelief, as well as between their decisions and deeds. However, there are limitations to their freedom of choice, represented by things beyond their control or reach. Consequently, they are only held responsible, in this life and in the hereafter, for their decisions and deeds in the matters which they can influence or control. 

 

Allah, praise to Him, has willed for humans to be free in making their choices, in their relationship with their physical and social environments, and in their relationship with Him. That is why He, praise to Him, has accepted the request of Iblis (Shaytan, devil) to give him a chance to prove that humans do not deserve God's trust in them to be His good caliphs on Earth. However, He promised to punish both the Shaytan and those humans who choose to follow him, causing harm to themselves, to others, and to Earth. 

God's acceptance of the Iblis request was on the basis of His foreknowledge that some humans are going to worship Him out of love, obedience, and choice. That is why He refers to them in the Holy Quran as His "worshippers," who are going to be rewarded by leading an everlasting life in Paradise. He also warned those who choose to disobey Him with punishment in the Hell Fire.

If Allah, praise to Him, has willed for humans to be forced "slaves," without freedom or choice, they would have been so. If this was His will, then these "slaves" would not be capable of disobedience or wrong doing, and consequently there would be no need for a Last Day, for reckoning and judgment.

 

Because Allah, the Creator, praise to Him, has willed that humans should have freedom of choice, slavery is a form of great disobedience to His will. It is the highest form of abomination, as it deprives humans the freedom of choice that the Creator gave to them.

The Holy Quran refers to people generally, and to believers in particular, as "worshippers" ('ibad), or other forms of the adjective. Only five verses of the Holy Quran refer to people as "slaves" ('abeed), in plural form. However, all of these five verses refer to those people as self-oppressors because of rejecting God's messages to humanity. These are slaves to their arrogance, ignorance, pride, stubbornness, and misguidance.

 

The freedom of choice that Allah, praise to Him, has given to humans during their first life on Earth is taken away from them on the Day of Judgment. On that Day, a person will appear before his/her Creator as a helpless and powerless "slave," as stated in Verse 93, Chapter 19 (Surat Maryam):

 

ٰ  ( 19: 93).
 

Everyone in the heavens and the Earth is going to come to the Beneficent (God) as a slave (Maryam, 19: 93).

 

The Prophet, pbbuh, his Companions, and the overwhelming majority of Islamic scholars urged people to work and take initiatives in pursuing what benefits them in this life. They taught us that the human freedom of choice and action does not contradict with God's foreknowledge and His intervention.

 

Finally, each one of the thirteen English translators of the Holy Quran did his best to convey the message of God to humanity, may Allah reward them for their efforts. However, it is clear that almost all of them, except Qaribullah, are far from being accurate in their translations of just one word.

 

The solution is a better and an institutionalized way to translate the Holy Quran from Arabic to English and other languages. This should be conducted by a Committee of Muslim Scholars, consisting of scholars of the Quran, Sunnah, as well as natural scientists, and social scientists. It's time to provide billions of people on Earth with the word of God, translated by experts from various sciences to replace the individual efforts of current translators, may Allah reward all of them.

 

This author is willing to coordinate the efforts towards the establishment of such a Committee and he welcomes correspondence on that matter.

 

 

========================================================================================================================

 

Notes:

 

 [1] How the Holy Quran description of the Messengers of God was translated by 13 translators, whose translations are published at www.tanzil.net.

  

The Arabic text of the Holy Quran describes each of the Messengers of God, in his relationship with God, as 'abd (), which should be translated into "worshipper," as Verse 4: 172 explains. However, the thirteen translators gave different translations, ranging from worshipper to servant, to even slave, as shown in the following tables. 

 

This applies to 'Eissa Bin Maryam (Jesus, the Son of Mary) in Verse 4: 172,  Muhammed in 17:1, Noo'h in 17: 3, Zakariya in 19: 2, Dawood (David) in 38: 17, Ayoob (Jobe) in 38: 41, peace and blessings of God be upon all of them.

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Table 1

Translation of the Word, 'abd (),  Describing Messengers of God

By 13 Translators of  www.tanzil.info (2010) *

 

Translators

 

'Issa (Jesus)

Verse 4: 172

Muhammed

Verse 17: 1

Nooh (Noah)

Verse 17: 3

Zakariya

Verse 19: 2

Dawood (David)

Verse 38: 17

Ayoob (Job)

Verse 38: 41

Ahmed Ali

votary

votary

votary

votary

votary

votary

Ahmed Khan

bondman

bondman

bondman

bondman

bondman

bondman

Arberry

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

Asad

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

Daryabadi

bondman

bondman

bondman

bondman

bondman

bondman

Hilali & Khan

slave

slave

slave

slave

slave

slave

Maududi

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

Picktall

slave

servant

servant

servant

bondman

bondman

Qaribullah

worshiper

worshiper

worshiper

worshiper

worshiper

worshiper

Sahih Inte'l

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

Sarwar

worship

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

Shakir

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

servant

Yusuf Ali

to serve  & worship

servant

devotee

servant

servant

servant

 

* In translating the word, 'ibadatihi (His worship) in Verse 4: 172, which is the Quran guidance in explaining the adjective 'abd as "worshiper," six of the translators understood the meaning and translated it correctly as "worship." These are Ahmed Khan, Hilali and Khan, Qaribullah, Sahih International, Sarwar, and Yusuf Ali. However, only two of them applied it correctly to the singular adjective 'abd. Qaribullah translated it as "worshipper" in all of the six verses. Ahmed Ali also correctly translated it to the archaic word "votary," means "devout worshiper." Sarwar applied it correctly once and Yusuf Ali translated it as a verb with two meanings to serve and worship.

 

The other four translators who understood the word, 'ibadatihi and translated it correctly as "His worship" did not apply it to the singular adjective 'abd, thus lacking consistency. Ahmed Khan and Daryabadi translated 'abd as "bondman," Hilali and Khan translated it as "slave," Sahih International translated it as "servant," so did Sarwar and Yusuf Ali.

 

Translators Arberry, Asad, and Maududi translated the word 'abd as "servant."  

 

Pickthall was inconsistent in his translations, as he used three different translations "slave, servant, and bondman" for the same word, 'abd. So was Yusuf Ali, who also used three different translations: "to worship, servant, and devotee."

 

By June 2018, four more translations were carried by the same portal (www.tanzil.net). These were authored by Itani, Mubarakpuri, Qarai, and Wahiduddin. All the four of them translated the word 'abd as "servant," in all of the six verses researched in Table 1. Mubarakpuri was the only one who gave a different translation in one of the six verses. He translated abd as a slave in verse 38: 17.

 

Like the other translators mentioned in Table 1 of 2010, these four translators also understood the meaning of the word 'ibadatihi (His worship) in Verse 4: 172, which is the Quran guidance in explaining the adjective 'abd as "worshiper," and translated it correctly as "worship." However, they did not apply it to the singular adjective 'abd.

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Table 2

Translation of the Word, 'ibad ( )

By 13 Translators of  www.tanzil.info (2010) *

 

Translators

 

Verse 2: 207

Verse 21: 26

Verse 25: 63

Verse 37: 40

Verse 43: 19

Verse 50: 11

Ahmed Ali

creatures

votaries

devotees

creatures

creatures

men

Ahmed Khan

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

Arberry

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

Asad

servants

servants

servants

servants

beings

men

Daryabadi

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

bondmen

Hilali & Khan

slaves

slaves

slaves

slaves

slaves

slaves

Maududi

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

Picktall

bondmen

slaves

slaves

slaves

slaves

men

Qaribullah

worshipers

worshipers

worshipers

worshipers

worshipers

worshipers

Sahih Inte'l

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

Sarwar

worshipers

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

Shakir

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

servants

Yusuf Ali

devotees

servants

servants

servants

serve

servants

 

* In translating the word 'ibad ( ), which is researched in Table 2 above, the translators were generally consistent with their translations of the word 'abd (), as mentioned in Table 1. They still mainly used the words "servants, bondmen, and slaves," as their translations for ibad (worshippers).

 

Ahmed Ali stands as the most inconsistent among them, as he used four different translations for the same word, "creatures, votaries, devotees, and men." He was followed by Asad, who used three different translations, "servants, beings, and men." Then, Pickthall, who also used three different translations, "bondmen, slaves, and men."

 

Only Qaribullah was consistent in translating the word correctly as "worshipers," while Ahmed Ali and Yusuf Ali used the correct close translations, "votaries and devotees" but inconsistently. Sarwar used the correct translation "worshippers" only once.

 

The most remarkable observation is regarding Verse 43: 19, which describes the angels as 'ibadul Rahman, which should be translated as "worshipers of the Beneficent." The angels referred to in this Verse are translated as "creatures, bondmen, servants, beings, and slaves." The only correct translation of "worshipers" was by Qaribullah.

 

 The strangest translation was "bondmen," which was used by Ahmed Khan and Daryabadi. How can angels be described as "men"? Hilali and Khan as well as Pickthall translated it as "slaves," which is a derogatory and disdainful adjective (as mentioned by Bin Katheer). Angels are "honorable worshipers," as Allah, praise to Him, describes them in Verse 21: 26 of the Holy Quran.

 

By June 2018, four more translations were carried by the same portal (www.tanzil.net). These were authored by Itani, Mubarakpuri, Qarai, and Wahiduddin. All the four of them translated the word 'ibad as "servants," in all of the six verses researched in Table 2. Wahiduddin was the only one who gave a different translation in one of the six verses. He translated ibad as a human beings, in verse 50: 11.

 

=======================================================================

 

 

[2]. A full list of the verses of the Holy Quran, which mention the Arabic root verb "to worship" ( 'abada ) and its derivatives can be found on pages 441-445 of the Holy Quran Index in Arabic by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr.1406 (1986). The Arabic Title of the index is: Al-Muajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Quran Al-Kareem. Moreover, an Arabic language search of the Holy Quran words can be conducted at many websites, such as www.tanzil.net, which has been used also by this author.    

 

The two verses 2: 23 and 8: 41 describe the Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him, with the word 'abdana (Our worshipper). Verse 72: 19 describes him as Abdullah (worshipper of Allah). He was also described as 'abduhu (His worshipper) in verses 18: 1, 25: 1, 39: 36, 53: 10, and 57: 9.

 

Other Messengers of Allah and His Prophets, peace be upon all of them, as well as good people were also described with the word 'abd (worshipper) in its various forms. Thus, Zakariya was described as 'abdahu (His worshipper) in verse 19: 2. Eissa (Jesus) was described as Abdullah (worshipper of Allah) in verses 4: 172 and 19: 30, and as 'abd (worshipper) in verse 43: 59. Dawood (David) was described as 'abdana (Our worshipper) in verse 38: 17, and Sulayman (Solomon) was described as al-'abd (the worshipper) in verse 38: 30. Ayoob (Jobe) was described as 'abdana (Our worshipper) in verse 38: 41 and as al-'abd in verse 38: 44. Noo'h (Noah) was described as 'abdan (a worshipper) in verse 3: 17 and as 'abdana (Our worshipper) in verse 54: 9. He was also described together with Loot (Lot) as 'abdayn (two worshippers) in verse 66: 10. Al-Khadir was described as 'abdan (a worshipper) in verse 65: 18. Finally, a believer, in general, is described as 'abdun muneeb (a returning worshipper) in verses 34: 9 and 50: 8. Verse 96: 10 also mentions 'abdan Idha Salla (a praying worshipper).   

 

[3]. The Holy Quran describes a category of non-believers as "oppressors" of themselves as well as others. Verses 7:44-45 explain this term as referring to those who block people from the path of Allah, twist the truth, and deny the Hereafter.

 

( 7: 44).

 

( 7: 45).

 

The curse of Allah is on the oppressors (Al-A'araf, 7: 44).

 

Those who block (people) from the path of Allah, and twist (the truth), and deny the Hereafter (Al-A'araf, 7: 45).

 

[4]. The three early prominent Islamic scholars, renowned for their interpretations of the Holy Quran, are Al-Tabari (Died in 310 Hijria about 922 Gregorian), Al-Qurtubi (Died in 671 Hijria, about 1272 Gregorian), and Bin Katheer (Died in 774 Hijria, about 1372 Gregorian). They employ their knowledge of Arabic as well as their comprehensive knowledge of the Holy Quran, to explain the meaning of a word in a verse by its meaning in another verse. Their most important contribution, though, is including explanations from the Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, and from his companions, may Allah be pleased with them.

 

[5]. The relationship between choice and predestination has been a subject for discussion and research since the early years of Islam. This includes 'Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, explanations from the Companions and research by scholars.

 

Among the contemporary scholars who used the middle-ground approach in discussing choice and predestination was Shaikh Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi. He discussed in a session titled "Al-Qadha and Wal-Qadar," part of his weekly show, "Islamic Law and Life" (Al-Shari'a Wal 'Hayah), in Aljazeera TV. The text of the entire Arabic show session can be accessed at:

 

http://www.aljazeerah.info/ Al-QadhaWal Qadar By Shaikh Yousuf Al-Qaradawi

 

 and at:

 

 http://www.qaradawi.net/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=32&version=1&template_id=105&%20parent_id=16

 

[6] Here is the full text of the 'Hadith, with authentication, from Sunan Al-Tirmidhi:

: ǿ : " " (   2065). 

[7] Here's the Arabic text of the 'Hadith about urging believers to be strong in taking initiatives in things which benefit them: 

 

: " . . "  ( 2664 79 2/370). 

 

[8] The Arabic text of how Caliph Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, explained free choice and predestination is as follows:


 
. :
 
. .
 
.
 
. .
 
.
 
:
 
: !
 
.

 

 
:
 
" ."
 
( 687 1742 2164).

 

http://hadith.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=237&Words

 

 [9] Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani explained the notion of God's will, intervention, and decree by affirming the choice of dealing with God's will by God's will. He said: "I struggled with God's decree by God's decree, for God's decree. This is what a man should do."

 

: " ."

http://portal.shrajhi.com/Media/ID/8512

 

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-36581/page-23

 

The citation of Ibn Taymiya, Ibn Al-Qayyem, and the book titled "Fetou'h Al-Ghayb" was mentioned by Shaikh Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi. See Endnote [5].

 

[10] In his book titled "Al-'Uboudiya" (Worship), Ibn Taymiya responded to Al-Qadariya and Al-Jabriay, showing that they were wrong in their interpretations, particularly about their extreme views of no choice at all or complete choice. The Arabic text of the book is published on the following link:

 

http://www.islamicbook.ws/amma/alabwdit.pdf

 

For more information  about these "self-Isolated" (Mu'tazila) groups, see Salah Najeeb Al-Duq's article (in Arabic), titled "Al-Qadariya and Al-Jabriya," in which he mentioned that the Prophet's Companions who lived at the time of these two groups condemned them. Among these Companions were 'Abdullah Bin 'Umar, Jabir Bin 'Abdullah, Abu Hurayrah, Ibn 'Abbas, Anas Bin Malik, 'Abdullah Bin Abi Awfa, and 'Uqba Bin 'Amir Al-Jihni. The article is posted on the following link:

 

http://www.alukah.net/sharia/0/115029/#ixzz5LnnDY5dP

 

 

============================================================================================================================

 

About the Author and the Book:

 

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine, in 1369 Hijriya (1950), but he has been living in the United States since 1986.

 

The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net.

 

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.
 

  ( 61: 8).  

 

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8). 

 

 

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.

 

editor@aljazeerah.info